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Basic simplified Computer Boot process

Today would like to share little, simplified information on Computer Boot process. Before we work on our computers and on GUI (Graphical User Interface) and when the computer is powered on the following series of pre-programmed actions takes place

World of Compters

  1. The BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) does a power –on Self-Test (Called as POST) and initiates the boot process
  2. The Boot-strap process locates the mater Boot Record (MBR) of the primary boot device (HardDisk, cd, floppy disk, USB) as determined by the BIOS
  3. The MBR of the bootable device points the boot –strap to the Boot Sector of the active Partition.
  4. The Boot-strap then loads the OS boot loader in to the computers main memory (RAM). At this point the role of the BIOS is completes and control is transferred to the OS.
  5. The OS boot loader then loads its various components in to the computers main memory completing the boot sequence and providing the user its user interface.


Netstat Command to troubleshoot port conflicts

Would you like to know network status on your computer? Or would you like to know what network communication threads are open between your computer and networked or remote computers, then

Netstat is the right dos command to use to find this information.

The netstat command is a Command Prompt command used to display very detailed information about how your computer is communicating with other computers or network devices.

Specifically, the netstat command can show details about individual network connections, overall and protocol-specific networking statistics, and much more, all of which could help troubleshoot certain kinds of networking issues or it will help you troubleshooting application communication issues. These commands also useful to find malicious traffic from external IPs and ports open.

Netstat Command Syntax:

netstat [-a] [-b] [-e] [-f] [-n] [-o] [-p protocol] [-r] [-s] [-t] [-x] [-y] [time_interval] [/?]

You can refer the following links to know more about these switches while using with the Netstat.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_Control_Protocol

http://pcsupport.about.com/od/commandlinereference/p/netstat-command.htm

There are many more information resources available on internet in order to understand the use of Netstat command.

One of the simplest way I use to find the current network connections and their status by running the following Netstat command and export the data in text file to ease my job.

Syntax:

Go to command prompt.

StartàRunàcmdàok

Under the commandline Window, Type

Netstat –anob>port.txt   and press Enter

Then type port.txt

It will open up the port.txt with information about Source IP/Destination IP and ports used.

For example, the above command should look like

C:Netstat –anob>port.txt

C:port.txt

When you open the text file, you will see TCP (Transmission control protocol) operations and its status. Refer the following table for most common TCP communication status

TCP connection State Represents
LISTEN (server) represents waiting for a connection request from any remote TCP and port.
SYN-SENT (client) represents waiting for a matching connection request after having sent a connection request
SYN-RECEIVED (server) represents waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment after having both received and sent a connection request
ESTABLISHED (both server and client) represents an open connection, data received can be delivered to the user. The normal state for the data transfer phase of the connection.
FIN-WAIT-1 (both server and client) represents waiting for a connection termination request from the remote TCP, or an acknowledgment of the connection termination request previously sent.
FIN-WAIT-2 (both server and client) represents waiting for a connection termination request from the remote TCP
CLOSE-WAIT (both server and client) represents waiting for a connection termination request from the local user.
CLOSING (both server and client) represents waiting for a connection termination request acknowledgment from the remote TCP
LAST-ACK (both server and client) represents waiting for an acknowledgment of the connection termination request previously sent to the remote TCP (which includes an acknowledgment of its connection termination request).
TIME-WAIT (either server or client) represents waiting for enough time to pass to be sure the remote TCP received the acknowledgment of its connection termination request. [According toRFC 793 a connection can stay in TIME-WAIT for a maximum of four minutes known as a MSL (maximum segment lifetime).
CLOSED (both server and client) represents no connection state at all.

 

Again this is just basic info on using the netstat command and not detailed information on how TCP/IP protocol communicates over the network. You can refer the above links or refer the below link for more detailed information.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_Control_Protocol

http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19455-01/806-0916/6ja85399h/index.html

 

Hope the provided information above helps. If you know any additional information or simplest tips to use netstat command please do share with others by commenting on this blog.